权力任性,梁思成痛心疾首,如今北京被迫迁府

北京城没有毁于战争,没有毁于革命,而是毁于建设。

美国前总统卡特曾说:“我们有能力建无数座曼哈顿、纽约,但永远没有能力建第二个北京 。当年傅作义怕毁了北京城,成为千古罪人,开城投降,使得政权顺利交接!本来,那些以保护古城名义占领古城的人,应该万分爱惜古城!

然而,让我们记住它们吧:中华门,1417年建,1959年拆。地安门,1420年建,1954年拆。崇文门,1436年建,1965年拆。东直门,1439年建,1969年拆… 

全是几百年的古建筑,怎能下得去手?许多年前,几近绝望的梁思成先生跪抱城砖,仰望苍穹,大放悲声:“五十年后,你们会后悔的!”可50年后的2011年,他们没后悔,他们把梁思成的故居也给拆了……

如果著名建筑专家梁思成的建议被采纳,北京古城,会成为令中华儿女骄傲的建筑博物馆。而今天,北京只能被迫迁府。50年后,历史将证明你是错误的,我是对的。半个世纪后,验证了梁思成对彭真说的话,“古城”北京已面目皆非。

权力任性,梁思成痛心疾首,如今北京被迫迁府

图为明朝中期所绘的《帝都图卷》

北京,古今名城,多朝帝都,城市历史几可追溯至3000年前。秦汉以来,北京一直是中国北方重镇,自春秋战国时期被燕国立为国都始,先后称蓟城、燕都、燕京、大都、北平、顺天府等。辽、金、元、明、清等帝统时代,及民国北洋政府时期至49年后,北京均为都城。悠久的历史,灿烂的文化,皇家古建、四合院、胡同、京剧、特色小吃….让北京为世界留下自己的独有面孔。

北京市委、市政府、市人大、市政协四套机构于2015年10月1日起,从市中心迁往北京市东部郊区通州办公。一石激起浪千层。政客、专家、学者、商贾、百姓纷纷发话,对北京迁府一事多角度解读。历史学家、建筑学家、城市学研究者也追忆起,1949年建政时关于北京规划的争论。

大家特别注意到最终建言失败的著名建筑专家梁思成先生痛心疾首的预言:在这些问题上,我是先进的,你是落后的;50年后,历史将证明你是错误的,我是对的。这是梁先生50年代初对北京市长彭真说的话。         

50年早已过去,很不幸,梁先生一语成谶。如今的北京,沙漠逼近,河湖干涸、地下水枯竭、阴霾沙尘蔽日、交通令人绝望、人口畸形膨胀,古迹大量减少,文化不断消失,城市功能低弱….北京后人来到这里,几乎已认不出父辈口中的家乡。

让我们回溯到1948年11月,中央认为蒋介石的国都在南京,他的基础是江浙资本家。我们要把国都建在北平,我们也要在北平找到我们的基础,这就是工人阶级和广大的劳动群众。在1948年3月王稼祥向中央建议几个候选城市被否决后,北京最终成为首都。当时,梁思成作为北京市规划委员会副主任,极力反对“苏联专家”以天安门为中心改造北京,建议完整保护北京古城,中央政府应搬到西部办公。但是,这不可能!

 梁思成护京梦碎 

权力任性,梁思成痛心疾首,如今北京被迫迁府

专栏作家马鼎盛曾经撰文称,1949年建政之初,市长彭真站在天安门城楼上对梁思成说:毛主席希望将来从这里望过去,要看到处处都是烟囱。梁思成大吃一惊,他认为北京是古代文化建筑集中的城市,不应该发展工业。最好像华盛顿那样,成为政治文化中心。

权力任性,梁思成痛心疾首,如今北京被迫迁府

后来,梁思成与南京中央大学建筑系教授陈占祥共同完成长达2.5万字的《关于中央人民政府行政中心区位置的建议》,内容主要有两条:一是主张全部保存城区所有的房屋,不同意在北京内城、外城建设新楼房和新工厂,旧城完全按原貌保存,使它成为一个历史博物馆;二是建议北京新行政中心建在月坛以西、公主坟以东一带,以五棵松为中心建设一个新北京。形成一个多中心又有限制的市区,既保护了旧城,又促进各自区域内的职住平衡,降低长距离的交通量。史称“梁陈方案”。

方案受到苏联专家的强烈反对。1949年刘少奇访问苏联,请斯大林派专家帮搞市政建设。苏联人九月就来到北京,以莫斯科市苏维埃副主席阿布拉莫夫为团长来了个17人的大团,其中有建筑、水利、下水道、道路方面的专家。

权力任性,梁思成痛心疾首,如今北京被迫迁府

苏联人对美丽古城北京和完善的古代市政设施称赞有加,一再说要保护、利用和发展古城。但他们却在选择北京政权行政中心设计地点上和梁、陈发生严重分歧,赞同建筑师朱兆雪、赵冬日的意见:以天安门为中心,向四周逐步扩建。称,你们的党中央和政务院已经在中南海了,天安门这一带已经设了重要部门,高等法院、公安部、重工业部都在东交民巷,外交部在东单北边,天安门已经是你们新的行政中心了。

权力任性,梁思成痛心疾首,如今北京被迫迁府

苏联人还担心北京没有设计力量,施工力量很小,只会盖平房和修房,盖不了楼房。甚至抬出斯大林:莫斯科市的建设规划和莫斯科行政中心是红场,是斯大林亲自规划、亲自定的。当年在苏联也有争论,当时有人主张保存旧莫斯科,在城外另建新的中心,受到斯大林的严厉批评。

当时的北京市召集市政负责人和专家开会讨论苏联人建议,除梁陈等少数人之外,竟得到一致通过。

于是,1950年2月,苏联老大哥提议改建、扩建北京旧城的方针获得最高层批准,自此,古城北京浩劫开始,梁思成护京梦碎。

 半世违建京畿毁 

权力任性,梁思成痛心疾首,如今北京被迫迁府

北京历史可追塑到汉朝的钟楼

权力任性,梁思成痛心疾首,如今北京被迫迁府

梁思成痛心疾首,却不甘心,上计不成只好取其中,利用自己名声和关系四处奔走,试图让没文化的苏联专家下手轻点。不要拆毁几百年的古城墙、古建筑、王府、牌楼、四合院、街巷胡同等和北京历史文化有关的一切。但最终,这位耶鲁大学教授、纽约联合国总部大厦设计谘询委员会的中华民国代表,平津战役中热情帮助绘制北平古物保护地图免受炮击的爱国者,只留下梁思成哭古城墙、梁思成哭牌楼被责骂的辛酸故事。

权力任性,梁思成痛心疾首,如今北京被迫迁府

1953年11月,北京市当局决定,要打破旧的格局给与我们的限制和束缚,行政区域要设在旧城中心,并且要在北京首先发展工业。自此,北京古建筑开始被大规模地拆除。

权力任性,梁思成痛心疾首,如今北京被迫迁府

当年梁思成认为,城门和牌楼、牌坊构成了北京城古老街道的独特景观,可以通过合理规划加以保留。因此曾在国务院办公会议上,和北京副市长吴晗争得面红耳赤。最后吴晗竟站起来说:您是老保守,将来北京城到处建起高楼大厦,您这些牌坊、宫门在高楼包围下岂不都成了鸡笼、鸟舍,有什么文物鉴赏价值可言!气得梁当场痛哭失声。

权力任性,梁思成痛心疾首,如今北京被迫迁府

强拆北京旧城古建

权力任性,梁思成痛心疾首,如今北京被迫迁府

1952年8月,北京市各界代表会议召开,谈拆除天安门旁边两侧长安左门与长安右门的提案,梁思成与众多委员发生激烈争论。

主张拆除的理由是这两门妨碍交通和游行队伍。会上,有关部门找了很多三轮车夫来控诉三座门的血债,说他们多少人在这里出了交通事故,一定要把三座门拆掉。并说梁思成保护长安左门、右门的建议是“影响人民利益与首都建设”。结果经集体表决拆除二门。

1959年打通时,长安街已有600年历史。原来的街宽仅15米。1954年要拓宽长安街不少于100米。最终划定为120米。梁思成说:短跑家也要11秒,一般的人走一趟要1分多钟,小脚老太婆过这条街就更困难了。北京市规划学会理事长赵知敬还道出了一个祕密:当时处于抗美援朝后期,从战略上考虑,长安街被定为一块板的形式,必要时可以起降飞机。

内部知情人回忆:对于城墙,梁思成主张全部保留,它是国宝,不能破坏。梁思成建议在城墙上建花园,人们可以上城墙游玩,观看北京四周美丽的风景….

权力任性,梁思成痛心疾首,如今北京被迫迁府

1954年,中央决定拆除北京城墙,彭真非常慎重,没急着拆。1958年1月南宁开会时毛问彭:开封城墙拆了很好,你们北京什么时候拆?彭说:我回去同市委合计合计。彭回来后因故又往后拖了。1963年北戴河会议时,河北发生特大洪灾,死伤很多。河北官员汇报说,有的县城城墙没拆,城门一堵,洪水就没淹进县城。毛一听说:看来城墙不仅在战争中起到防御作用,还有防洪的作用。城墙没有拆的,以后也可以不拆。这样北京城墙又保存两年。

但北京古城墙终究在政治第一的作用下没逃过厄运。1965年,因为搞战备,需要修地铁,一期工程拆了内城城墙的一部分。文革期间,地铁二期内城城墙基本被拆除。改革开放后,修建二环路时,除保留正阳门、前门箭楼、德胜门箭楼和东便门角楼等几座城门楼外,全部城墙惨遭拆除。

权力任性,梁思成痛心疾首,如今北京被迫迁府

王军在《城记》中痛述,二战美军轰炸日本时请教梁思成。梁划出京都、奈良和大坂,标出古迹的方位,说这是人家的古城,别炸。于是京都三千宫殿寺庙,大大小小至今完好。建筑大师梁思成救得了日本的京都却救不了北京的老城墙。它在战火中奇迹般保存下来;然后在和平建设时期却被毁掉。

权力任性,梁思成痛心疾首,如今北京被迫迁府

中国文物学会会长罗哲文说:如果这一片古城可以存留至今,那将是世界上惟一得以完整保留,规模最宏伟、气势最磅礡的历史文化名城,就连今日之巴黎、罗马也难以企及。

权力任性,梁思成痛心疾首,如今北京被迫迁府

1953年5月,北京开始酝酿拆除牌楼。梁夫人、著名建筑师、诗人林徽因当面指着吴晗的鼻子怒斥。那时她肺病已重,喉音嘶哑,但其神情与真心令在场者动容。林徽因还对彭真说:你们拆掉的是800年的真古董….有一天,你们后悔了,想再盖,也只能盖个假古董了!

1954年,因西单到新华门段路窄,影响游行队伍通过,决定将金代建成的矗立于几百年风雨之中的庆寿寺及双塔夷为平地,原址上建起电报大楼。据说拆双塔寺也有苏联专家的意见。

权力任性,梁思成痛心疾首,如今北京被迫迁府

北京西长安街街景老照片。照片中右侧的双塔玲珑秀丽,相挽而立。这就是曾矗立在西长安街电报大楼位置的双塔庆寿寺。

双塔存在的往昔,人们形容:早晨太阳似出似不出的时刻,站在西单牌楼东南角老长安戏院门外朝东看,就会看到两座塔,一在路南,一在路北。这个因光学作用所造成的景像便是燕京十景之一的长安分塔。

当时梁思成曾劝说:像西长安街上金代的庆寿寺双塔,为什么一定要把它拆掉?为什么不能把它保留下来,作为一个街心小绿地看一看。

双塔庆寿寺分别建于1257、1258年,是两位高僧海云、可庵的灵塔。九级塔称“天光普照佛日圆明海云佑圣国师之塔”,七级塔称“佛日圆照大禅师可庵之灵塔”。1267年修建元大都南城墙的时候,因与双塔庆寿寺发生冲突,元世祖忽必烈下旨:西南转角城墙南移,“远三十步环而筑之”,把双塔庆寿寺保留了下来。

双塔寺见证北京城从金、元、明、清,到民国袁世凯执爱政….史称先有双塔寺后有长安街 。明朝同科进士毛鹏、顾睹、刘题、田伦等四人在双塔寺结盟,京戏《四进士》流传至今。

据统计,上世纪80年代初还几乎保存完整的3000多条北京古城胡同,到90年代仅剩1200余条。后来胡同消失的速度更快。仅2007年9月,北京就有361条胡同同时在拆。胡同与四合院骨肉相连,胡同的消失就意味着四合院的消失。老舍儿子、作家舒乙说,胡同是北京的第二城墙。胡同的消失使得北京的古都风貌底色渐渐褪去。

北京后英房元代住宅遗址復原。目前能够考证到的最早的北京四合院只能追溯到安定门附近的后英房元代遗址,建筑界将它视为元代北京四合院的典型。

权力任性,梁思成痛心疾首,如今北京被迫迁府

元灭金后元世祖忽必烈放弃金中都,将都城的位置北移,改名为大都,从此开始了北京城大规模的城市建设。清代建都北京以后,大量吸收汉文化,基本上承袭了明北京城的建筑风格,对宫殿、城池、街衢、坊巷等都未作大的变更。清代可以说是北京四合院发展的巅峰时期。1990年至1998年,北京市进行了大规模的旧城改造,共拆除老房子420万平方米,其中大部分是四合院,并且不乏保护完好者,许多被拆除的四合院构造之精美、质量之坚固,令拆迁工人都啧啧称奇。

文革浩劫,是北京四合院罹难最严重时期,院中精美的砖雕、木雕、石刻、彩绘等传统装饰构件被荡涤一空。

权力任性,梁思成痛心疾首,如今北京被迫迁府

1949年后,北京传统四合院、清代留下的王府、宅院由私产变为公产。普通住宅用的院落,变为人员復杂、 多户居住的大杂院。文革浩劫,是北京四合院罹难最严重时期,院中精美的砖雕、木雕、石刻、彩绘等传统装饰构件被荡涤一空。无数价值连城的艺术品,或被砸成碎片,倖存者为数寥寥。加上所谓“备战”全民挖洞运动,进一步破坏了四合院的原有格局和排水系统。

明成祖朱棣定都北京后修建紫禁城,在不远处为加工宫殿基座设了个材料厂,取名“台基厂”。到清代,台基厂那条路上被几位皇亲占据建了几座王府,从1949年后到60年代起,北京市委、市府几十年间一直坐在台基厂,半个世纪后的今天,其被迫迁往通州。不知意味着什么?也让人想起“早知现在,何必当初”

忆古思今,如果不是1949年后认同斯大林派来的苏联人的无知计划,如果爱国弱者梁思成的所有建议都被採纳,北京古城会成为令中华儿女永远骄傲的旷世古都和建筑博物馆。而今,却要被迫迁府。

权力任性,梁思成痛心疾首,如今北京被迫迁府
梁思成

然而,历史无法復原。1972年,梁思成于贫病之中撒手人寰。生命弥留之际,他还重复着这样的话:世界上很多城市都长大了,我们不应该走别人走错的路,早晚有一天,你们会看到北京的交通、工业污染、人口等等,会有很大的问题。

别忘了,那仅仅是70年代之初!

半个世纪后,事实还是无情验证了梁思成的泣泪警告——“古城”北京,已经被糟蹋得面目皆非。

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